The term cement understand artificial, powdered materials, which have astringent properties, and when exposed to salt solutions and other liquids to form a plastic mass. It eventually hardens and turns into a cement stone. The first binder, which people began to use in construction, was clay. But as the construction of it was not too strong, humanity continued to search for suitable material. The earliest precursor of cement, was found on the banks of the Danube. In the old shack, it was a concrete floor thickness twenty-five centimeters. Concrete was made of reddish limestone and gravel locally.
Age of discovery more than 5000 years BC. But this finding is more the exception than the rule. The massive use of binders was dated at times the slave of Egypt, India and China. There was used for the construction of plaster. It due to the fact that for the production of gypsum, used much less fuel than for the production of lime.
That she is the oldest, after gypsum, artificial mineral astringent. A well-known lime was in Greece, where it was used mainly for tiling. But for the mass of masonry mortars began in the Roman period. It was the Romans began to make "cement putsolannovoy" pozzolan – a deposits of volcanic ash of Vesuvius. In Kievan Rus basic material in the construction of a lime. By its construction were presented fairly high. Out of pure limestone did the so-called fat lime (white), and limestone with clay impurities taught the gray limestone. In 1584 in Moscow, was established by the 'Stone Order', which is in charge of manufacturing and lime. There were the first manufacturer of dry building mixtures they were called 'Cement'. Additions to it were – bull's blood, egg whites, cottage cheese and other fillings. After a sufficiently long period of time, there are the first studies to improve the construction of smesey.V 1822 St. Petersburg, the book Chelieva 'treatise on the art to prepare a good mortar', and in 1825 Cheliev in the book 'The complete instruction, summarizes the experience of improving the properties of binders. The point after Chelieva Russian scientists continue: AA Baikov, V. Zhuravlev, RL Shulyachenko and others. In 1824, a British bricklayer Joseph Aspdin receives a patent for the invention of their own 'improved method of producing an artificial stone. " Named in the experience of a product called Aspdin Portland. And today the production of cement is a promising business.