Max Weber

The contribution of Max Weber to the methodology of the research was the distinction enters the scientific method to approach the data and the method of the value-judgment sociological: the validity of the values is a faith problem, not of knowledge and, in consequence, social sciences must be become free of the values. The main objective of the sociological analysis is the formularization of sociological rules. Weber it developed an instrument of analysis of the events or concrete situations that demanded necessary and clearly definite concepts? the ideal type. The main characteristic of this ideal type is not to exist in the reality, but to serve of model for the analysis and understanding of concrete cases, really existing. When the concrete reality is studied in such a way, becomes possible to establish causal relations between its elements.

Its workmanship the protestant ethics and the spirit of the capitalism allows to verify this relation. In the first part of Economy and Society, Max Weber displays its system of ideal types, between which of law, democracy, capitalism, feudalismo, society, bureaucracy, among others. All the ideal types are presented by the author as definite concepts as personal criteria, that is, are about conceptualizations of what it understands for the used term, of form the one that the reader perceives its intentions clearly. The important one in this tipologia if finds in the meticulous care in which Weber articulates its definitions, and in the systematic way in which these concepts are related ones to the others. From the concepts most general of the social behavior and the social relations, Weber formulates new concepts more specific, detailing each time more the concrete characteristics. Its boarding in terms of ideal types is placed in opposition, on the other hand, to the structural explanation of the phenomena and, for another one, to the perspective in which it sees the phenomena as qualitatively different entities.